Energy use and conversion
EVs and grid integration
Transport is a significant contributor to CO2 emissions and currently accounts for 27% (118 EJ) of global energy demand, with more than three quarters of that coming from road transport. By 2050, vehicle numbers on the road will have risen by some 60%, yet their energy demand will have dropped to 84% of today’s levels because of the EV revolution over this period. The three major drivers of this revolution are decarbonization, air pollution control, and cheaper EVs.
A typical battery-electric vehicle (BEV) today produces less than half the CO2 emissions of an average European passenger car over its lifetime (including manufacturing); to reduce pollution levels, more than 30 cities globally plan to ban diesel and petrol vehicles by 2025 or 2030; and the cost of battery packs is reducing by 19% for every doubling of production, resulting in in passenger EVs achieving total cost of ownership parity with internal combustion engine equivalents next year.
In this chapter, DNV's Technology Progress Report covers:
- Car and battery technology
- Charger technology
- AC charging
- DC charging
- Grid integration
The huge investments currently being channeled into EVs and their associated charging infrastructure, the fact that they are three to four times more efficient than ICE equivalents, their much lower impact on our planet and the flexibility they can provide to aid their integration – as well as that of renewables – means that EVs are a vital part of the energy transition, and one that will ultimately lower the cost of transport, improve the air around us, and improve grid reliability.